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What is Breast Cancer Self-Exam?

Breast Cancer is a prevalent disease, and early detection is crucial to improving outcomes. While regular clinical screenings and mammograms are vital, performing breast self-examinations at home can help individuals become familiar with their breast tissue and identify any changes or abnormalities. Breast self-exam, or regularly examining your breasts on your own, can be an important way to find a breast cancer early, when it’s more likely to be treated successfully. A breast self-exam (BSE) is a procedure that involves examining one’s breasts to detect any changes or abnormalities. It is a simple way for individuals to become familiar with their breast tissue and notice any potential signs of concern. While it is not a substitute for regular clinical breast exams or mammograms, it can be a useful tool for early detection of breast tissues.

What are the steps to perform breast self exam?


  • Choose a time when your breasts are least likely to be tender or swollen. Generally, a few days after your menstrual period is ideal for premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women can choose any day of the month.
  • Stand in front of a mirror in a well-lit room and ensure your breasts are visible and uncovered.

Visual Examination:

  • Look for any changes in breast size, shape, or symmetry. Observe for skin changes, such as dimpling, puckering, redness, or rash.
  • Examine the nipple area for any abnormalities, such as inversion, discharge, or scaling.
  • Raise your arms and observe for changes in contour or any visible signs of swelling or distortion.
Manual Examination:
  • Lie down flat on your back and place a pillow under your right shoulder. This helps spread the breast tissue evenly.
  • Using the pads of your fingers, make gentle, circular motions on your right breast, starting from the outer edge and moving towards the nipple. Cover the entire breast area, including the armpit.
  • Note any lumps, thickening, or hardened areas. Pay attention to any changes in texture or the presence of localized pain.
  • Repeat the same procedure on the left breast. Examination in Upright Position:
  • Stand up and raise your right arm. Use the same circular motions with your left hand to examine the right breast.
  • Repeat the process with your left arm raised while examining the left breast.
Additional Steps:
  • It’s essential to be aware of your breasts’ normal look and feel to recognize any changes. Remember that breast tissue may feel lumpy or uneven, especially before your menstrual period.
  • If you notice any persistent changes, such as new lumps, skin changes, or nipple discharge, promptly consult a healthcare professional for further evaluation.
Can I Rely on Breast Self-Exams Alone to Be Sure I Am Breast Cancer Free?

No, relying on breast self-exams (BSE) alone is not sufficient to ensure that you are breast cancer-free. BSE is a valuable component of breast health awareness and can help you become familiar with the normal look and feel of your breasts. However, it is important to understand that BSE has limitations and should be used in conjunction with other screening methods for breast cancer.

Here are some important points to consider:

  1. Limited sensitivity: BSE may not detect all breast abnormalities, including small tumors or early-stage cancers that may be difficult to feel. Other screening methods, such as mammography or clinical breast exams by healthcare professionals, are more effective at detecting potential abnormalities.

  2. False reassurance or anxiety: BSE can sometimes lead to false reassurance if a person does not detect a lump or abnormalities. Conversely, it may cause unnecessary anxiety if they misinterpret normal variations or benign conditions as signs of cancer. This is why it’s important to have regular screenings by healthcare professionals.

  3. Complementary screening methods: Mammography, which uses X-ray imaging, is considered the gold standard for breast cancer screening. It can detect abnormalities before they can be felt during a self-exam. Clinical breast exams by healthcare professionals, who are trained to detect subtle changes, are also crucial. These methods, along with BSE, provide a more comprehensive approach to breast cancer screening.

  4. Personalized risk factors: The appropriate screening regimen varies based on individual risk factors, such as age, family history, genetic predisposition, and personal medical history. A Breast Cancer Specialist can guide you in determining the best screening plan for your specific situation.

  5. Regular screenings: Following recommended guidelines for mammograms and clinical breast exams ensures a comprehensive approach to breast cancer screening. These guidelines take into account age, risk factors, and evidence-based research.


BSE is a useful practice to increase breast health awareness and self-monitoring, it should not be relied upon as the sole method for detecting breast cancer. Combining regular BSE with clinical breast exams and mammography as recommended by healthcare professionals offers the most effective strategy for early detection and improving outcomes. Consult with your doctor to determine the appropriate breast cancer screening plan for you.